But that requires a team that truly understands learning styles of students with ASD and how those styles affect general classroom performance. Writing composition, for example, is always tricky to teach, but especially to kids on the spectrum. Essay-writing requires students to develop a main idea and support it with details in a cohesive, grammatically correct package. Understanding the difference between the main idea and supporting details can be difficult for students with ASD because they often struggle with central coherence see sources.
Each event or fact may seem equally important, making it nonsensical to elevate it to just one main idea. They also tend to have trouble understanding time concepts, so putting ideas together in a logical sequence is challenging. These are just a few examples of how compositional writing can be trying for students with ASD.
In addition, teachers might ask for handwritten essays. This is when teachers typically see meltdowns from students with ASD. In their minds, they already completed the assignment. Here are ways school teams can support students during each step of writing and editing.
First, studies show that visual strategies help during the early process of generating ideas and structuring them into paragraphs.
Use high- or low-tech graphic organizers to show main ideas versus supporting details. Next, help students put ideas into sentences. Offer alternatives without exacerbating fine motor difficulties by:. Knowing that editing may be met with resistance, you can equip yourself to help the student achieve the standard without a meltdown. Meet students in the middle by acknowledging that they think editing is redundant and illogical. Instead, put in place clear, attainable requirements that improve overall writing quality.
Create a visual checklist describing various aspects of editing, along with a social story explaining how and why students need to edit. Include how many edits they have to make.
Essay writing for students 3rd edition
Using it, you check for:. As school-based SLPs, one of our most important roles is to translate the academic and social needs of students on the spectrum into meaningful accommodations. The formula for success is varying instruction and tailoring it specifically to ASD. This process helps students access the curriculum in their own ways. Google Scholar. Bloodgood, J. The first draft on tape. The Reading Teacher, 43, Boscolo, P.
The construction of expository test. First Language, 10, — Burtis, P. The development of planning in writing. In Wells, G. Chichester, England : John Wiley. Danoff, B. Incorporating strategy instruction within the writing process in the regular classroom: Effects on normally achieving and learning disabled students' writing.
Journal of Reading Behavior, 25, — De La Paz, S. Strategy instruction in planning: Effects on the writing performance and behavior of students with learning difficulties. Exceptional Children, 63, — The effects of dictation and advanced planning instruction on the composing of students with writing and learning problems.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, — Deno, S. Valid measurement procedures for continuous evaluation of written expression. Exceptional Children, 48, — Englert, C. Constructing well-formed prose: Process, structure, and metacognitive knowledge. Exceptional Children, 54, — Students' metacognitive knowledge about how to write informational texts. Learning Disability Quarterly, 11, 18 — Making writing strategies and self-talk visible: Cognitive strategy instruction in writing in regular and special education classrooms.
American Educational Research Journal, 28, — Flower, L.
essay writing for students 3rd edition 1997
The dynamics of composing: Making plans and juggling constraints. In Gregg, L. Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum. Gould, J. An experimental study of writing, dictating, and speaking. In Requin, J. Graham, S. The role of production factors in learning disabled students' compositions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, — Improving learning disabled students' skills at composing essays: Self-instructional strategy training.
Exceptional Children, 56, — Self-instructional strategy development: Programmatic research in writing.
In Wong, B. San Diego : Academic Press. The role of development of self-regulation in the writing process. In Schunk, D.
New York : Lawrence Erlbaum. Writing and writing instruction with students with learning disabilities: A review of a program of research. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14, 89 — Improving learning disabled students' skills at revising essays produced on a word processor: Self-instructional training strategy. Journal of Special Education, 22, — Effects of goal setting and procedural facilitation on the revising behavior and writing performance of students with writing and learning problems.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, — Improving the compositions of students with learning disabilities using a strategy involving product and process goal setting. Exceptional Children, 58, — Knowledge of writing and the composing process, attitude toward writing, and self-efficacy for students with and without learning disabilities.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, — A review of handwriting research: Progress and prospects from to Educational Psychology Review, 8, 7 — Halpern, J. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, Urbana. ED Google Scholar. Harris, K.
Essay writing for students 3rd edition 1997 http://pdf456.web.fc2.com
Improving learning disabled students' composition skills: Self-control strategy training. Learning Disability Quarterly, 19, — Self-regulated strategy development: A part of the writing process. In Pressley, M. New York : Academic Press.
Making the writing process work: Strategies for composition and self-regulation. Cambridge, MA : Brookline. Hammill, D. Test of Written Language — 2. Austin, TX : Pro-Ed. Hayes, J. Identifying the organization of writing processes. On the nature of planning. In Levy, C. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum. Hayter, A.
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The maximum family-wise error rate of Fisher's least significant difference test. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81, — Google Scholar Crossref. Horner, R. Multiple-probe technique: A variation of the multiple probe baseline. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, — MacArthur, C. Learning disabled students' composing under three methods of text production: Handwriting, word processing, and dictation.
Journal of Special Education, 21, 22 — Effects of a reciprocal peer revision strategy in special education classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 6, — Integration of strategy instruction into a whole language classroom: A case study. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 11, — McCutchen, D. Written Communication, 5, — Montague, M. Planning, procedural facilitation, and narrative composition of junior high students with learning disabilities.
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Moran, M. Performance of learning disabled and low-achieving secondary students on formal features of a paragraph-writing task.