Referencing within the body of an essay

Adjust in-text citations if you have multiple sources from an author. When they look up the source on your Works Cited sheet, they will find two different articles by James Smith. To avoid this confusion, you must include a shortened version of the essay's title, so the readers know which essay to look for.

Correct: It could be argued that Sethe is haunted by "the physical persistence of memory" Smith, "Beloved" Include the first initial if you have authors with the same last name. An in-text citation of Smith doesn't tell the reader which author provided the information. In that case, include the first initial of the author's last name in the in-text citation: S. Smith Format the citation in the Works Cited.

How To? In-Text and Parenthetical Explanation

When the reader sees a quote or idea that they would like to know more about, they will look up the source author by the last name you listed in the in-text citation. They will also know which page of the source they should look at to find the information they want. Depending on where you found the essay, your citation will follow a different format.

Regardless of what format you follow, one thing remains constant across all citations. You always indent all lines that come after the first line of a Works Cited citation.

APA Format: In-Text Citations, Quotations, Paraphrases to Avoid Plagiarism

This lets the reader know where one citation ends and the next one begins. MLA also uses title case ever time a title is given. This means that first word and all major words are capitalized: The Sound and the Fury.

Referencing the Essay

This is distinguished from sentence case, in which only the first word is capitalized: The sound and the fury. Follow the format for an essay found in an anthology. In this case, you must include the following information in this exact order: Lastname, First name. Editor's Name s.

City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Page range.

Citation Guide (MLA and APA)

For example: Smith, Jane. Mark Jones. New York: wikiHow Publishers, Include different information for essays published in journals. If you found the article in an academic journal, you have a different set of information to include. Some of the information — like author name, essay title, and page range — stay the same. But you should follow this format exactly: Author s. Issue Year : pages. Medium of publication. Add electronic information for sources found in online databases. These databases store electronic versions of print journals as PDFs.

Writing body paragraphs - Research & Learning Online

The article you're citing may have originally appeared in a print journal, but you accessed it online. You need to let the reader know how they, too, can access it online: Last, First. Date of Access. The date of access is the date on which you found the essay. For example: 15 July Method 2.


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Determine if APA is the right style for your document. APA is the formatting style for the American Psychological Association, but it's used in the social sciences, business, and nursing as well. Learn what information to include in-text. In APA, though, you must add a third element: the year in which the essay was published.

A further difference from MLA is that you include the in-text citation wherever the cited information is. If you mention the author by name in the sentence, the year appears in parentheses immediately after it. For example: Morrow argues that "quoted material" p. The page number always appears immediately after the quoted or referenced material appears. For example: Morrow argues that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite p.

If you don't name the author in the sentence, put all three pieces of information in the parenthetical citation. For example: It may be argued that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite Morrow, , p. The order of information in the parenthetical always goes Author, Year, Page.

Distinguish in-text between multiple sources by the same author. The first essay will be considered "a," the second "b," and so on. Add this letter designation to the year in the in-text citation to show which essay you're discussing. You would list the year for "Summer in the South" as a. For example: Morrow argues that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" a, p.

Add the first initial if you have authors with the same last name. Imagine that you have essays by Morgan Morrow and Timothy Morrow, but you want to cite Morgan's essay: It could be argued that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" M. Morrow, a, p. Format the citation in the Reference List.

Citing Sources in the Text of your Paper

Essay found in a print anthology: LastName, FirstInitial. Year of publication. Title of chapter in sentence case. In First Initial. MiddleInitial EditorsName Eds. Location: Publisher. Year of Publication. Title of article in sentence case. Method 3. Decide which kind of Chicago style formatting you should use. The catch is that there are actually two system of Chicago formatting.

The notes-bibliography system: used in the humanities literature, history and the arts. It provides notes at the bottom of the page, and sometimes a full bibliography at the end of the text. The author-date system: used the physical, natural, and social sciences. It provides parenthetical in-text citations that include the author and date of publication, as well as a bibliography. Place footnotes at the bottom of the page. At the end of the sentence that contains the borrowed material, place a number in superscript. Match each source to its information in the text by using the same number, but do not raise it into superscript.

Put endnotes after the body of the paper. Format your notes properly. The first line of each source is indented, just like a paragraph, but subsequent lines are not. Essay found in a print anthology: 1. For example: 1. Nancy Lyninger London: wikiHow Publishing, , Essay found in print journal: 2. For example: 2.