Three main types of gene-environment interactions are active the process by which individuals with certain genotypes select and create environments that facilitate the expression of those genotypes , passive the process by which genetic parents provide both the genes and the early environmental influences that contribute to the development of a characteristic in their children , and reactive the process by which non-family individuals respond to the behavior produced by a genotype in characteristic ways.
Life Span Perspective on Human Development Essay
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Psychological Inquiry. The development of personality traits in adulthood. John, R. Pervi Eds. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. The structure of temperament from infancy through adolescence. Angleitner Eds. Germany: Pabst Science.
Introduction to Life Span, Growth and Development
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Foundations of Personality. August European Journal of Personality. Retrieved November 1, , from www. Set like plaster? Evidence for the stability of adult personality.
Weinberger Eds. American Psychologist. The cumulative continuity model of personality development: Striking a balance between continuity and change in personality traits across the life course. Lindenberger Eds.
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Life Span Perspective on Human Development - Essay Example
Psychological Assessment. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. Twin Research. Non shared environment: A theoretical, methodological, and quantitative review. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Nonshared environment a decade later". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Developmental psychology is a scientific approach which aims to explain growth, change and consistency though the lifespan.
A significant proportion of theories within this discipline focus upon development during childhood, as this is the period during an individual's lifespan when the most change occurs. Developmental psychologists study a wide range of theoretical areas, such as biological, social, emotion, and cognitive processes.
Empirical research in this area tends to be dominated by psychologists from Western cultures such as North American and Europe, although during the s Japanese researchers began making a valid contribution to the field. To describe development it is necessary to focus both on typical patterns of change normative development and on individual variations in patterns of change i. Although there are typical pathways of development that most people will follow, no two persons are exactly alike.
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Developmental psychologists must also seek to explain the changes they have observed in relation to normative processes and individual differences. Although, it is often easier to describe development than to explain how it occurs.
Finally, developmental psychologists hope to optimise development, and apply their theories to help people in practical situations e. Think about how children become adults. Is there a predictable pattern they follow regarding thought and language and social development? Do children go through gradual changes or are they abrupt changes? Normative development is typically viewed as a continual and cumulative process. The continuity view says that change is gradual. Children become more skillful in thinking, talking or acting much the same way as they get taller. The discontinuity view sees development as more abrupt-a succession of changes that produce different behaviors in different age-specific life periods called stages.
Biological changes provide the potential for these changes. These are called developmental stages-periods of life initiated by distinct transitions in physical or psychological functioning. Psychologists of the discontinuity view believe that people go through the same stages, in the same order, but not necessarily at the same rate. When trying to explain development, it is important to consider the relative contribution of both nature and nurture.
Developmental psychology seeks to answer two big questions about heredity and environment:.
The Life Span Development Perspective
Nature refers to the process of biological maturation inheritance and maturation. One of the reasons why the development of human beings is so similar is because our common specifies heredity DNA guides all of us through many of the same developmental changes at about the same points in our lives. Nurture refers to the impact of the environment, which involves the process of learning through experiences. Stability implies personality traits present during present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan. In contrast, change theorists argue that personalities are modified by interactions with family, experiences at school, and acculturation.
This capacity for change is called plasticity. For example, Rutter discovered than somber babies living in understaffed orphanages often become cheerful and affectionate when placed in socially stimulating adoptive homes. Developmental psychology as a discipline did not exist until after the industrial revolution when the need for an educated workforce led to the social construction of childhood as a distinct stage in a person's life.
The notion of childhood originates in the Western world and this is why the early research derives from this location.